1. What are Delivery terms?

Delivery terms refer to a set of rules defining obligations of the parties: the buyer and the seller. They explain who and from which moment incurs the cost and risk related to the delivery, as well as the cost of cargo insurance. Among the most commonly used delivery terms are Incoterms® 1990, 2000, 2010, Combiterms, and Amended American Definitions in International Trade. However, the most popular are Incoterms® interpretations.


2. What does the term “international multimodal transport" mean?

This term refers to the transport of goods using at least two different means of transport on the basis of a single multimodal transport agreement covering multimodal transport from a place located in one country, where goods are taken care of by a multimodal transport operator, to a marked destination place located in a different country.


3. What are goods of strategic importance?

These are dual-use goods and arms. Control of dual-use goods is regulated by the EU law, while control of arms is regulated by the state law.

Dual-use goods are goods including software and technology which can be used both for civil and military purposes. This term includes also all goods of non-explosive application, as well as those which can be used in making nuclear weaponry or other devices for nuclear explosions. (List of dual-use goods specified in Council Regulation (EC) no. 1504/2004 of 19.07.2004, amending and updating Council Regulation (EC) no 1334/2000…)

Arms include weapons, ammunition, explosives, wares, their elements and technologies defined in the list issued pursuant to an ordinance of the Minister of Economy (a list of arms specified in the Ordinance of the Minister of Economy on the list of arms of 28.09.2004 (Journal of Law, No. 221, item 2248)).


4. What does consolidation of cargo mean?

Consolidation means putting together a few smaller loads being transported in the same direction. For this purpose, the forwarder makes a separate bill of lading for every consolidated cargo, and, additionally, one overall bill including a loading list. In the overall bill, the sender is the forwarder consolidating the cargo, and the receiver, the forwarder deconsolidating it. The carrier has access only to the overall bill.


5. What does “general LCL/LTL cargo forwarding” mean?

This term refers to the forwarding of loads smaller than the loading space of a vehicle – container or trailer. They are commonly defined by means of the following abbreviations: LCL (less than container load), LTL (less than trailer load).


6. What does ADR stand for?

This abbreviation refers to European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road. This agreement regulates the terms and conditions of road transport of such goods in order to guarantee the highest safety level. The ADR agreement is also applied to domestic transport.


7. Which goods are defined as dangerous?

Dangerous goods are those whose transport is prohibited pursuant to the provisions laid down in annexes to the ADR agreement, or acceptable, but only pursuant to the regulations included in the above-mentioned annexes.


8. What does the weight/measure rate mean?

Rate per 1 tone or per 1 m³. Higher value is taken for calculations.


9. What is the IMDG code?

IMDG code (International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code) does not have a character of an international convention, so it is not legally binding. However, it is commonly accepted and used in accordance with the practice.


10. What does “endorsing a consignment note” mean?

Through endorsing (guaranteeing) – signing the reverse of a consignment note, all the rights resulting from it are transferred to a different person.


11. What does L/C stand for?

Letter of credit is a form of payment for goods used in international trade. It is a bank's obligation towards the exporter, taken on importer's order, to pay the exporter a defined amount of money in return for submission by him of a fixed-term letter of credit. This is a convenient and common form of payment in international trade, which secures businesses, especially in export.


12. What does FIOS stand for?

Free in and out and free stowed. It is used in agreements between the forwarder and charterer. In and out, as well as stowing costs are paid by charter.


13. What does the term “demurrage and detention charges free period” mean?

This is the period for taking a full and returning an empty container to the harbour. After the free period is over, charges on the account of demurrage and detention are calculated. Charges on the account of demurrage cover the period after the free period from taking the container from harbour. Charges on the account of detention cover the period from the moment of taking an empty container to returning it to harbour. The length of demurrage and detention charges free period can vary and results from the regulations in ship-owner tariffs, as well as individual agreement terms with ship-owners.


14. What are the interior dimensions of 20-feet and 40-feet containers?

20-feet container (20ft) – 5883mm x 2330 x 2355 (length x width x height)
40-feet container (40ft) – 12010mm x 2337 x 2371 (length x width x height)


15. What does the ETD/ETA stand for?

ETD – estimated time of departure
ETA – estimated time of arrival


16. What is cbm?

Cbm- cubic meter


17. How many euro-pallets can be placed in a 20-feet/40-feet container? (AOK)

In a 20-feet container - 11 euro-pallets
In a 40-feet container - 23 euro-pallets


18. What is a feeder?

Feeder is a kind of a ship which carries smaller series of goods to/from ocean harbours from/to smaller harbours. E.g. from Gdynia to Hamburg/from Hamburg to Gdynia.


19. What does it mean that a company operates as NVOCC?

The term Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier refers to forwarders who do not have their own vessels, but provide forwarding services on the basis of forwarding contracts signed with vessel operators, using their own consignment notes. The NVOCC category exists in American law, which regulates the terms on which American and international companies can get a license to operate as NVOCCs in transport to/from USA. The body responsible for implementing and enforcing the NVOCC regulations is the Federal Maritime Commission (FMC). Commonly, NVOCC is a category used in sea transport all over the world, and defines a forwarder, who by making out his own consignment note, takes responsibility for a given load, pursuant to the terms of such consignment note.


20. What does the expression door-to-door mean?

Door-to-door means a full forwarding service from the moment of collecting goods from the sender to the moment they are delivered to the receiver, including all necessary formalities.


21. Are the companies C.Hartwig Gdynia S.A., C.Hartwig Warszawa S.A., C.Hartwig Katowice S.A. i C.Hartwig Szczecin Sp. z o.o. related?

Despite the fact that all the mentioned companies have common roots and date back to 1858, when Carl Hartwig established his company, today they are totally unrelated. C. Hartwig Gdynia S.A. has its branch offices in the following cities:

  • C. Hartwig Gdynia S.A. Warsaw Branch Office,
  • C. Hartwig Gdynia S.A. Katowice Branch Office,
  • C. Hartwig Gdynia S.A. Szczecin Branch Office.

C. Hartwig Group includes also:

  • Poznań Branch Office,
  • Łódź Branch Office,
  • Kraków Branch Office,
  • Wrocław Branch Office,
  • Amerpol International Ltd. in USA
  • PSA Transport Ltd. in Great Britain
  • Poltrans Internationale Speditiongesellschaft mbH in Germany.

C. Hartwig Gdynia S.A. was the first of the group of companies bearing the name of Hartwig to become a private company. C. Hartwig Warszawa S.A. and C. Hartwig Katowice S.A. are still owned by the State Treasury, but are to be privatized.